Category: Lubricant Degradation

Varnish Badges of Honour

Varnish is widely known as a primary culprit of equipment failure. This sticky enemy effectively finds its way into most of our equipment and... ...

Additives and their properties

Properties of Additives in Lubricants Each lubricant has a varying percentage of additives as not all lubricants are created equally. Lubricants are designed based... ...

ICML 55 – the revolution in the lubrication sector

What is ICML 55? ICML 55 is revolutionizing the lubrication industry! It is so exciting to be around at this time when it has... ...

Lubricant Deterioration Identifications

What the difference between Shelf Life and Service Life? There’s a major difference between Shelf life and Service life especially when it concerns lubricants!... ...

Conditions that affect lubricants

What conditions affect lubricants? How are your lubricants currently stored? Are you storing lubricants under the correct conditions? These questions have come up a... ...

Oxidation

What is Oxidation? One of the major types of oil degradation is Oxidation. But what is it exactly, as applied to a lubricant? Oxidation... ...

Thermal Degradation vs Oxidation

What’s the difference between Thermal Degradation and Oxidation of a lubricant? The two major differences are the contributory factors and the by products that... ...

Microdieseling

What is Microdieseling? Microdieseling is also called Compressive Heating and is a form of pressure induced thermal degradation. The oil goes through 4 stages... ...

Electrostatic Spark Discharge

What is Electrostatic Spark Discharge? Electrostatic Spark Discharge is real and extremely common for turbine users! Static electricity at a molecular level is generated... ...

Lubrication failures in Ammonia plants

Quite often, when lubrication failures occur, the first recommended action is to change the lubricant. However, when the lubricant is changed, the real root... ...

Lubrication failures in Industrial plants

When failures occur in industrial plants, the first culprit to be suspected is usually the lubricant. However, should this be the first area that... ...

How can a lubricant fail?

How can a lubricant fail? This question has caused many sleepless nights and initiated countless discussions within the industrial and even transportation sectors. Before... ...

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Varnish Badges of Honour

Varnish Badges_honour

Varnish is widely known as a primary culprit of equipment failure. This sticky enemy effectively finds its way into most of our equipment and causes operators, maintenance personnel and plant managers a series of nightmares. From unplanned shutdowns costing millions of dollars to sticking of servo valves on startup, or increases in bearing temperature, varnish usually announces its arrival. Once it has been found, there is typically a cause for panic but perhaps it just needs to be understood rather than feared?

 

The ICML VPR & VIM Badges

Recently (August, 2021), the International Council for Machinery Lubrication launched two new badges. These badges are, VIM (Varnish & Deposit Identification and Measurement) & VPR (Varnish & Deposit Prevention & Removal). These were created after the culmination of 3 years of work from the global varnish test development committee. It has been designed for those involved in all aspects of managing or advising lubricant programs especially those with the responsibility of recommending, selling or installing appropriate deposit control equipment or other mitigation strategies.

Most of the readers will already be familiar with my enthusiasm for understanding lubricant degradation. Thus, when these badges came out, I knew I had to secure them! While the requirements for taking the test suggest the possession of the MLT I or MLA I certification or 1 year of experience, I figured that my MLE certification would be an asset (as I haven’t gotten my MLT I certification yet, it’s on the list!). However, I wanted to make sure that I covered all of the elements in the BoK for both the VIM & VPR badges, so naturally I turned to the varnish guru himself, Greg Livingstone!

 

Fluid Learning – All the way!

Greg is the CIO at Fluitec but he’s also the facilitator for the ICML VPR & VIM badges. What a treat! If you’ve never heard the name Greg Livingstone then you’re obviously not in the lubrication field. Greg has penned hundreds of papers on varnish and can be thought of as the varnish guru since he has extensive experience in this area. It’s a no brainer that I chose Fluid Learning to get me up to speed on what I needed to know for these exams!

Greg was an amazing facilitator and not only covered information relevant to the BoK for the exams but gave students a full overview about everything you needed to know about varnish. These on demand sessions kept me scribbling notes and nodding to myself and saying, “Oh that’s what really happens!” He presents the information clearly and adds some much needed humour into the sessions. It was an absolute privilege having him as my tutor for these badges.

 

VPR & VIM- What you need to know!

Varnish Badges_need-to-know

VPR - Varnish & Deposit Prevention and Removal

The VPR badge ensures that candidates understand proactive methods and technologies which can be employed to reduce the degree of degradation. It is also designed to confirm that they can sufficiently evaluate combinations of technologies to prevent and remove varnish including the proper steps to set up and implement an effective varnish removal system.

The topics covered in the VPR include:

  • Problems associated with Varnish & Deposits (20%)
  • Factors affecting Breakdown (28%)
  • Proactive Methods that can be used to minimize oil breakdown (16%)
  • Methods / Technologies that can be used to remove oil breakdown products and/or prevent deposits (36%)

The complete BoK for the VPR badge can be found here.

 

VIM (Varnish & Deposit Identification & Measurement)

The VIM badge on the other hand is more ideally suited for personnel responsible for recommending suitable oil analysis tests and mitigation efforts related to the deposit tendencies of various in-service fluids (application dependent). They would also be responsible for monitoring and adjusting these strategies accordingly.

The topics covered in VIM include:

  • Problems associated with Varnish and Deposits (20%)
  • Varnish and Deposit Composition (24%)
  • How Breakdown Products / Contaminants become Deposits (24%)
  • Oil Analysis Techniques that can be used to gauge Breakdown and Propensity towards Deposit Formation (32%)

The complete BoK for the VIM badge can be found here.

 

Exam tips!

Varnish Badges_exam_tips

The actual exams for both the VPR & VIM are set at 45 minutes with 25 multiple choice questions. Candidates must achieve 70% grade to attain the badges. Currently, the fee for the exam is USD75. Since there were overlaps of the content and the exam durations weren’t that long, I decided to sit both exams in one day. I will only advise this for those who are comfortable with doing this as exam anxiety and all that comes along with it can be stressful!

Here are a couple tips for taking these exams:

  • Log into the system 30 minutes prior to your scheduled exam time. This allows you to clear your mind, settle yourself and gives you an extra 15 minutes to figure out where the email is with your credentials! If you can’t remember your password to login to the system, this also gives you enough time to get that reset and sorted before the actual exam time.
  • The session only opens 15 minutes before the appointed time. During this time, you will converse with the moderator as they do the checks of the room and your National Identification. The moderators will engage with you and ensure that you are sitting the correct exam.
  • Ensure you have your National Identification on hand (your passport can be used as well). As long as it has your picture and the expiration date on the same side, it will be acceptable. For the Trinidadians, do not use your National ID card as we have our pictures on the front with the information on the back (I used my Driver’s permit).
  • Candidates have the option of “Flagging” questions to come back to them later. This is a great tool to help you to mark those questions you want to return to or double check.
  • There is a timer in the screen layout which helps you to keep track of your time. 45 minutes passes very quickly when you’re running through the questions!
  • Exam results for these badges come back very quickly as much as within a few hours or one day depending on the time of your exam.

Why do you need these badges?

Varnish Badges_need-badges

As long as you work within the lubrication sector or interface with machines requiring lubrication, then you need to get these badges! Oil degradation occurs throughout the life of the lubricant whether it’s a small or large operation. By understanding how it degrades and ways to mitigate that degradation, you can save your equipment and avoid unwanted downtime. These badges were designed for the personnel in the field to allow them to make decisions regarding the lubricant and to empower them in taking steps to avoid degradation or mitigate it should the need arise. Consider it as getting your passport stamped by the ICML!

The courses offered by Fluid Learning are perfect for those seeking to understand lubrication deposits, what causes them and how they can be mitigated. While the content covered during these sessions align with the ICML VPR & VIM badges, they also add to a more holistic approach to varnish and deposits. Fluid Learning is an official ICML Training Partner and is currently the only one (of which I am aware) offering training prep for these badges. I highly recommend them for anyone seeking to learn more about or avoid sticky varnish situations. 

At the moment of writing this article, there are only 8 people globally who have acquired these badges from ICML. I am the first female in the world to attain these badges but I will not be the only female for very long. Varnish is an issue which affects us all and we need to understand it, so we can prevent it and keep our equipment safe. I hope to see many more candidates with these badges in the near future!

Additives and their properties

Properties of Additives in Lubricants

add_calcium

Each lubricant has a varying percentage of additives as not all lubricants are created equally. Lubricants are designed based on their application or use within the industry. For instance, an engine oil is typically composed of 30% additives, 70% base oil while turbine oils comprise 1% additives and 99% base oil.

Therefore, particular attention must be paid to getting the additive compositions to be just right for the application and ensuring that the additives can perform their functions.

Each additive has a particular function and is used as per the application of the lubricant. We have adapted the following from Analysts Inc – Basic Oil Analysis which describes the purpose of some of the most commonly used additives in lubricants.

additives

ICML 55 – the revolution in the lubrication sector

icml_stds

What is ICML 55?

ICML 55 is revolutionizing the lubrication industry! It is so exciting to be around at this time when it has started its implementation. For those who aren’t aware of ICML 55, here are a couple of notes on it.

ICML 55 was born out of ISO 55000 which speaks to Asset Management. From this standard, 3 standards were developed to guide the lubrication industry since no previous standards existed within the lubrication industry.

  • ICML 55.1 - Requirements for the Optimized Lubrication of Mechanical Physical Assets
  • ICML 55.2 - Guideline for the Optimized Lubrication of Mechanical Physical Assets
  • ICML 55.3 - Auditors' Standard Practice and Policies Manual

ICML 55.1 has already been completed, while 55.2 should be done at the end of this year and 55.3 scheduled for 2020.

These are exciting times!

Here’s the official press release:

https://info.lubecouncil.org/2019/04/04/icml-introduces-icml-55-asset-management-standards-mle-engineer-certification/

While ICML 55.1 was only launched in April of this year (2019), it is a standard that the lubrication industry has been in need of for several years. It addresses the “Requirements for the Optimized Lubrication of Mechanical Physical Assets”.

What exactly are the assets covered? Here they are:

  • Rotating & Reciprocating Machines, Powertrains, Hydraulic Systems and lubricated subcomponents
  • Assets with lubricants that reduce friction, wear, corrosion, heat generation or facilitate transfer of energy
  • Finished products from API categories I-V
  • Non Machinery support assets (Personnel, policies, procedures, storage facilities and management)
icml_55

There are also fluids and assets which are NOT covered:

  • Fuels, coolants, metal-working fluids, pastes, fogging agents, preservative fluids, coating materials, heat-transfer fluids, brake fluids, cosmetic lubricants
  • Solid lubricants (e.g., powders and surface treatments used as coating rather than to reduce friction between surfaces in motion)
  • Additives independent of the finished lubricant
  • Electrical transformer oils and anti-seize compounds
  • Fluids and materials derived from a petroleum or petroleum-like base
  • Fluids that do not serve a lubrication function
Photo Credit: https://info.lubecouncil.org/icml-55-standards/
Photo Credit: https://info.lubecouncil.org/icml-55-standards/

ICML 55.1 speaks to the “Requirements for the Optimized Lubrication of Mechanical Physical Assets” it also describes and defines 12 interrelated areas that can be incorporated in a lubrication program. This has never been officially documented before, nor has any standard been published as a guideline for lubrication programs.

The 12 areas are outlined below:

  1. SKILLS: Job Task, Training, and Competency
  2. MACHINE: Machine Lubrication and Condition Monitoring Readiness
  3. LUBRICANT: Lubricant System Design and Selection
  4. LUBRICATION: Planned and Corrective Maintenance Tasks
  5. TOOLS: Lubrication Support Facilities and Tools
  6. INSPECTION: Machine and Lubricant Inspection
  7. LUBRICANT ANALYSIS: Condition Monitoring and Lubrication Analysis
  8. TROUBLESHOOT: Fault/Failure Troubleshooting and RCA
  9. WASTE: Lubricant Waste Handling and Management
  10. ENERGY: Energy Conservation and Environmental Impact
  11. RECLAIM: Oil Reclamation and System Decontamination
  12. MANAGEMENT: Program Management and Metrics

As per ICML's website, here's a list of people that the new standard can benefit:

Photo Credit: https://info.lubecouncil.org/icml-55-standards/

 

Check out the ICML 55 standards today and apply it to your organization!

Lubricant Deterioration Identifications

What the difference between Shelf Life and Service Life?

There’s a major difference between Shelf life and Service life especially when it concerns lubricants!

No one wants to put expired lubricants into their equipment! This can cause unexpected failures which can lead to unplanned downtime which can continue to spiral down the costly path of unproductivity!

shelf_life_service_life

Shelf Life

The Shelf life is usually what is stamped by the Manufacturer indicating the length of time the product can remain in its current packaging before being deemed unsuitable for use. These can typically be found on the packaging.

Service Life

The Service life however is determined by the application and conditions under which the lubricant is being used. Usually, estimated running hours / mileage are given by the equipment manufacturer in the maintenance section of the manual. (Condition monitoring can also be used to determine appropriate service intervals.)

However, how will someone know if the product has deteriorated while still in its original packaging?  What should someone typically look for?

Above are some tips for identification of deterioration in lubricants. Take a note of these for the next time you are unsure of the integrity of your lubricants.

Conditions that affect lubricants

What conditions affect lubricants?

How are your lubricants currently stored?

Are you storing lubricants under the correct conditions?

These questions have come up a dozen times during audits and countless warehouse meetings!

conditions
Conditions that affect lubricants

To answer these questions, there are five main conditions that can affect lubricants. We have detailed them along with the effects of these conditions on the lubricant.

  • Temperature – if incorrect can lead to oxidation. For every 10C rise in temperature above 40C the life of the lubricant is halved.
  • Light – too much can lead to oxidation especially for light sensitive lubricants such as transformer oils. Hence the reason that most packaging is opaque.
  • Water – this usually works with additives to cause their depletion or contamination of the product. Water in any lubricant is bad (especially for transformer oils as they are involved in the conduction of electricity.
  • Particulate contamination – contamination can occur by air borne particles if packaging is left open or if dirty containers/vessels are used to transfer the lubricant from its packaging to the component.
  • Atmospheric contamination – this affects viscosity and promotes oxidation and can occur if packaging is left open. For instance, if a drum is not properly resealed or capped after usage or the most common practice of leaving the drum open with the drum pump on the inside.

Different types of lubricant degradation

Why is it important to know the types of lubricant degradation?

It’s important since it helps us to figure out why or in some instance how, the lubricant degraded! Usually degradation is the change that occurs when the lubricant can no longer execute its five main functions:

  • the reduction of friction
  • minimization of wear
  • distribution of heat
  • removal of contaminants and
  • improvement of efficiency.

 

lubricant_fails
Types of lubricant Degradation Mechanisms

There are 6 main types of Lubricant Degradation as detailed below. Each type produces various by products which can enable us to understand the reason for the degradation and eliminate that / those reasons.

Here are the 6 main types of Lubricant Degradation:

1. Oxidation
2. Thermal Breakdown
3. Microdieseling
4. Additive Depletion
5. Electrostatic Spark Discharge
6. Contamination

As discussed, each mechanism produces distinct results which help us in their identification! Check out our article on why lubricants fail for more info!

Oxidation

oxidation

What is Oxidation?

One of the major types of oil degradation is Oxidation. But what is it exactly, as applied to a lubricant?

Oxidation is the addition of oxygen to the base oil of the lubricant to form either of the following:

  • Aldehydes
  • Ketones
  • Hydroperoxides
  • Carboxylic Acids

Wow… too many chemical names right?! These help to pinpoint the conditions responsible and then we can address them accordingly. Each of these by products are produced by different types of reactions or in some cases different stages of the oxidation process. It is key to note the type of by product as it gives us a clue to the root of the issue through which oxidation occurs.

For instance, the presence of Carboxylic acids can result in the formation of Primary Amides which can lead to heavy deposits. Early detection of the Carboxylic acids can help us prevent this. Once we determine the source of oxidation to produce the carboxylic acids, we can in turn remove this from the system.

 

Oxidation Stages

Oxidation does not happen in an instant. Usually, it follows a series of events which eventually lead to oxidation. Like any process in life, there are different stages for Oxidation:

  • Initiation – Production of the free radical via the lubricant and catalyst.
  • Propagation – Production of more free radicals via additional reactions
  • Termination – Continuation of oxidation process after the antioxidants have been depleted or the antioxidant stops the oxidation process.
Stages of Oxidation

Results of Oxidation

Why is Oxidation bad for the lubricant? What can it ultimately result in?

Well, oxidation can result in the formation or lead up to the following:

  • Varnish
  • Loss of antifoaming properties
  • Additive depletion
  • Base oil breakdown
  • Increase in viscosity
  • Sludge

None of these are good for the lubricant!!!!!!!!! If you see any of these signs be sure to test for oxidation and identify the root cause for the introduction of oxygen in your system.

tests for oxidation

Oxidation Tests

Now that we know more about oxidation… what tests can be performed to prevent it?

There are 6 main tests that can be performed:

  • RPVOT (Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test)
  • RULER (Remaining Useful Life Evaluation Routine)
  • MPC (Membrane Patch Calorimetry)
  • FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared)
  • Colour (ASTM D1500)
  • Acid Number (ASTM D974)

One must be careful in selecting which test to apply, this is heavily dependent on the type of lubricant and its application.

For instance, if we perform the RULER test and the antioxidant levels have depleted significantly, we can suspect that oxidation is occurring or has stopped. Charting the rate of antioxidant depletion, can determine the rate of oxidation. This can assist us to forecast the time remaining before antioxidants have been depleted and can no longer protect the base oil.

Thermal Degradation vs Oxidation

What’s the difference between Thermal Degradation and Oxidation of a lubricant?

ox_vs_td

The two major differences are the contributory factors and the by products that are produced.

For oxidation, both oxygen and temperature are critical to the degradation of the lubricant however, in thermal degradation, the temperature of the lubricant exceeds its thermal stability (usually in excess of 200°C).

Oxidation usually occurs through the release of free radicals which deplete the antioxidants however, Thermal Degradation consists of polymerization of the lubricant.

Oxidation produces aldehydes, ketones, hydroperoxides, carboxylic acids varnish and sludge. On the other hand, Thermal Degradation produces coke as the final deposit.

Microdieseling

microdieseling

What is Microdieseling?

Microdieseling is also called Compressive Heating and is a form of pressure induced thermal degradation.

The oil goes through 4 stages in this degradation process:

1. There is a transition of entrained air from a low pressure to a high pressure zone

2. This produces localized temperatures in excess of 1000°C

3. The Bubble interface becomes carbonized

4. The oil darkens rapidly and produces carbon deposits due to oxidation

The conditions required for microdieseling can be either:

  • Low flashpoint with LOW implosion pressure
  • Low flashpoint with HIGH implosion pressure

For a low flashpoint with a HIGH implosion pressure, this constitutes to ignition products of incomplete combustion such as soots, tars and sludge

However, for a low flashpoint with a LOW implosion pressure, adiabatic compressive thermal heating degradation occurs to produce varnish from carbon insolubles such as coke, tars and resin.

stages_MD

Electrostatic Spark Discharge

ESD

What is Electrostatic Spark Discharge?

Electrostatic Spark Discharge is real and extremely common for turbine users!

Static electricity at a molecular level is generated when dry oil passes through tight clearances.

It is believed that the static electricity can build up to a point whereby it produces a spark.

There are three stages of ESD.

1. Static Electricity builds up to produce a spark – Temperatures exceed 10,000°C and the lubricant begins to degrade significantly.

2. Free radicals form – These contribute to the polymerisation of the lubricant

3. Uncontrolled polymerisation – Varnish and sludge produced (some may remain in solution or deposit on surfaces) which can also result in elevated fluid degradation and the presence of insoluble materials.

Lubrication failures in Ammonia plants

Quite often, when lubrication failures occur, the first recommended action is to change the lubricant. However, when the lubricant is changed, the real root cause of the lubricant failure has not been solved. As such, the cause of lubrication failure will continue to be present and may escalate further to develop other problems.

Essentially, this can cause catastrophic future failures simply because the root cause was not identified, addressed and eradicated. Moreover, the seemingly “quick fix” of changing the lubricant, is usually seen as the most “cost effective” option. On the contrary, this usually becomes the most expensive option as the lubricant is changed out whenever the issue arises which results in a larger stock of lubricant, loss in man hours and eventually, a larger failure which can cost the company at least a month or two of lost production.

In this article, we investigate lubricant failures in Ammonia plants and their possible causes. Some Ammonia plants have a developed a reputation for having their product come into contact with the lubricant and then having lubrication failures occur. As such, most Ammonia plant personnel accept that the process materials can come into contact with the lubricant and usually change out their lubricants when such issues occur. However, there are instances, where the ammonia is not the issue and plant personnel needed to perform a proper root cause analysis to determine the root cause and eradicate it. Here are a couple of examples of such instances.

Livingstone (1) defies the Lubrication Engineers Handbook in their description of ammonia as an inert and hydrocarbon gas that has no chemical effect on the oil, stating that this is incorrect. Instead, Livingstone (1) lists the number of ways that Ammonia can react with a lubricant under particular reactions such as;

  • ammonia being a base that can act as a nucleophile which can interact with any acidic components of the oil (such as rust/corrosion inhibitors)
  • reaction of ammonia with carboxylic acids (oil degradation products) to produce amides which cause reliability issues
  • transesterification of any ester containing compound to create alcohol and acids and the reaction of ammonia with oxygen to form NOx which is a free radical initiator that accelerates fluid degradation.

As such, one can firmly establish that ammonia influences the lubricant and can lead to lubrication failures should that be the cause of the lubricant failure.      

The Use of Root Cause Analysis     

Van Rensselar (2) quotes Zhou as saying the best method for the resolving varnish is to perform a root cause analysis. Wooton and Livingstone (3) also advocate for the use of root cause analysis to solve the issue of varnish. They go on to explain that the characterization of the deposit aids in determining the root cause of the lubricant degradation. As such, Wooton and Livingstone (3) have developed a chart to assist in deposit characterization as shown below.


Deposit Characterization graphic from Wooton and Livingstone (3)

Wooton and Livingstone (3) discussed that with the above figure, once the deposit can be characterized then the type of lubricant degradation can be more accurately identified. As such, the root cause for the lubricant degradation can now be firmly established thereby allowing solutions to be engineering to control and reduce / eliminate lubricant degradation in the future. 

Case Studies

A case study from Wooton and Livingstone (3) was done with an Ammonia Compressor in Romania which experienced severe lubricant degradation. In this case study, they found that when the in-service lubricant was subjected to two standard tests namely MPC and RULER, both tests produced results within acceptable ranges. As such, there was no indication from these tests that the lubricant had undergone such drastic degradation as evidenced by substantial deposits within the compressor. Thus, it was determined that the deposits should be analysed as part of the root cause analysis.

For the deposits from the Ammonia compressor, Wooton and Livingstone (3) performed FTIR spectroscopy to discover that its composition consisted of mainly primary amides, carboxylic acids and ammonium salts. It was concluded that the carboxylic acids formed from the oxidation of fluid while in the presence of water. 

In turn, the carboxylic acids reacted with the ammonia to produce the primary amides. These amides consisted of ammonium salts and phosphate. As such, the onset of carboxylic acids within the system eventually leads to the lubricant degradation. Thus, an FTIR analysis for carboxylic acids was now introduced to this Ammonia plant as well as MPC testing to monitor the in-service lubricant.

Additionally, chemical filtration technology was implemented to remove carboxylic acids within the lubricant. These two measures allowed for the plant to be adequately prepared for lubricant degradation and avoid failures of this type in the future.

Another case study was done in Qatar with an ammonia refrigeration compressor which was experiencing heavy deposits due to lubrication degradation. For this Ammonia plant, high bearing temperatures and deposits were found on the bearing. 

Upon investigation, it was realized that the lubricant had been contaminated externally and there was restricted oil flow to the bearings. After a FTIR was performed it was deduced that that the deposits were organic in nature and there were several foreign elements including high levels of carbon and primary amides. 

From further root cause analysis, it was determined that the high temperatures observed were due to the lubricant starvation. Due to these high temperatures, oxidation initiated and with the high levels of contamination (mainly from ammonia within the process) this lead to degradation of the lubricant in the form of heavy deposits.

The bearing oil flow was increased and reduction in external contaminants were implemented. Oil analysis tests of Viscosity, Acid Number, Membrane Patch Calorimetry and Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation tests were also regularized in the preventive maintenance program. Thus, for this failure, some operational changes had to be made in addition to increased frequencies of testing. With these measures in place, there would be a reduced likelihood of future failures.

From the case studies mentioned, it can be concluded that ammonia systems have a higher possibility of undergoing lubricant degradation due to the contamination of the lubricant by ammonia gas / liquid due to its properties. However, it must also be noted that the ingression of ammonia into the lubrication system is not the only cause for lubrication failure.

Therefore, it is imperative that a proper root cause analysis be carried out to determine the varying causes for lubrication failure before the ingression of ammonia accepts full responsibility for any such failure.

References:

  1. Livingstone, Greg (Chief Innovation Officer, Fluitech International, United States America). 2016. E-mail message to author, March, 08.
  2. Van Rensselar, Jeanna. 2016. “The unvarnished truth about varnish”. Tribology & Lubrication Technology, November 11. 
  3. Wooton, Dave and Greg Livingstone. 2013. “Lubricant Deposit Characterization.” Paper presented at OilDoc Conference and Exhibition Lubricants Maintenance Tribology, OilDoc Academy, Brannenburg, Rosenheim, Germany, United Kingdom, January 22-24, 2013.